# dietary intake genetic susceptibility immunization status smoking history social support network 53 H e a l t h M e d i c a l

dietary intake genetic susceptibility immunization status smoking history social support network 53 H e a l t h M e d i c a l

Which type of constant multiplier is most appropriate for calculating rates? (Points : 2)
100, 10,000, or 100,000
1,3,5,7,10
Multiples of 5
Multiples of 100
A and D are both correct

2. The first three interns you meet feel a lot better since they started taking a commonly prescribed antidepressant. You reluctantly draw the conclusion that internship is associated with depression; this is an example of: (Points : 2)
Deductive reasoning
Hypothesis testing
Inductive reasoning
Interpolation
3. The sum of the squared deviations from the mean, divided by the number of observations minus one is known as the: (Points : 2)
Range
Median
Variance
Standard Deviations
4. A most imposing formula used in medicine dealing with probability of a person having or not having a disease based on test results is: (Points : 2)
Cramer V-value Theorem
Plasmodium Theory
Calmette-Guerin Theory
Bayes Theorem
5. Reasoning which is learned from mathematics including geometry is known as: (Points : 2)
Productive
Inductive
Deductive
None of the above are correct
6. A Type II Error or false negative error is also known as a/an: (Points : 2)
Alpha Error
Beta Error
Omega Error
Delta Error
7. [A / (A + B)] / [C/( C + D)] is the formulas for: (Points : 2)
Absolute Risk
Relative Risk
Risk Ratio
Risk Difference
8. Ten children were weighed prior to the beginning of a nutritional study. The weights are: 81, 79, 92, 112, 76, 126, 80, 75, 68, 78. What is the mean weight? (Points : 2)
76.8
79
86.7
91
9. The main difference between clinical and classical epidemiology are: (Points : 2)
The time of the investigation
The place of the investigation
The population being studied
A and c are correct
B and c are correct
10. [A/(A + B)] – [C/ (C + D)] is the formula for: (Points : 2)
Risk Ratio
Risk Factor
Attributable Risk
Risk Difference
11. How many steps are included in the creating of a decision tree? (Points : 2)
4
5
6
7
12. The three stages of disease in the appropriate order from least to most detectable are: (Points : 2)
Latent, symptomatic, pre-disease
Symptomatic, latent, pre-disease
Pre-disease, symptomatic, latent
Pre-disease, latent, symptomatic
13. Which of the following is not a part of the procedure for investigating a suspected epidemic? (Points : 2)
Name the epidemic
Establish a diagnosis
Establish the case definition
Define time, place and person
Develop a hypothesis
14. Calculate Attributable Risk using the following data: A=1346, B= 100,000-1346, C=200, D=100,000-200; then select the appropriate answer below: (Points : 2)
1146/10,000
1146/100,000
146/10,000
146/1000
15. Developing a list of possible candidates for the causes of the disease and obtaining initial evidence that supports one or more of the candidates is known as: (Points : 2)
Research Design
Hypothesis Testing
Hypothesis Generating
Descriptive Research
16. An example of a nominal variable is: (Points : 2)
1,2,3
Yes/No
Male/Female
Both B and C are correct
All are correct
17. The definition of the word epidemiology includes: (Points : 2)
The study of determining factors of disease in a population
A way in which disease, injury and clinical practice are studied
Neither of the above is correct
Both a and b are correct
18. A false positive error is also known as __________ and a false negative error is known as _____________. (Points : 2)
Alpha/beta
Type I/Type II
Neither is correct
Both are correct
19. A histogram minus the bars which are replaced by dots which are connected is known as a/an: (Points : 2)
Bar Graph
Frequency Distribution
Stem and Leaf Diagram
Frequency Polygon
20. Please select the appropriate answer for the “mean” based on the following numbers: 2,8,10,21,46,58,31,2,9,141. (Points : 2)
3.28
328.0
.328
32.8
21. Another name for “bias” is: (Points : 2)
Synergism
Differential Error
Syndrome
Error
22. An investigator studying the health effects of omega-3 fatty acids in subjects with arthritis tends to assign enthusiastic participants to the intervention and skeptics to the placebo. The best way to avoid this form of bias is: (Points : 2)
“Intention to treat” analysis
Random Sampling
Randomization
Self-selection
Statistical Regression
23. Calculate the Attributable Risk using the following data: A= 191, B=99,809, C=8.70, D= 99,991.30; then select the appropriate answer below: (Points : 2)
182.3/100,000
183.2/100,000
99,991/100,000
191/100,000
24. Of the following numbers please evaluate to arrive at the correct mode: 28, 39, 39,41, 41, 41, 59, 65, 21, 28, 39, 39 (Points : 2)
41
59
39
28
25. The Decision Node: (Points : 2)
Is a point where clinicians await outcomes
Is a point where clinicians have to make a decision
Is only related to undesirable outcomes
Is only related to desirable outcome interpretation
26. Calculate the Odds Ratio (OR) using the following data: A= 191, B= 99,809, C=8.7, D= 99,991.30; then select the correct answer from below: (Points : 2)
2.000
1.952
2.195
21.95
27. What is an example of tertiary prevention? (Points : 2)
Hospice care
Occupational therapy after a stroke (cerebrovascular accident)
Post exposure prophylaxis for rabies
Treatment for essential hypertension
28. When developing a decision tree, which comes first: (Points : 2)
Chance Node
Neither A or B are correct
Decision node
Doesn’t Matter
29. If the cost of preventing a hip fracture is greater than the cost of surgical repair, which of the following is true: (Points : 2)
A preventative strategy still may be indicated
If a hip fracture occurs, it should be managed non-surgically
No attempt should be made to prevent hip fracture until a more cost-effective strategy is devised
The least costly preventative strategy should be chosen
30. A clearly identified group of people who are going to be studied is known as a/an: (Points : 2)
Cohort
Population
Neyman Group
None of the above
31. One way in which a researcher can judge how useful a screening or testing procedure is involves: (Points : 2)
Evaluation of number of correct test results seen
This cannot be done
This statement is false except in cohort studies of 200 or more individuals
Testing conducted in opposite areas of a geographic location
32. The ability of a measurement to be correct on the average is known as: (Points : 2)
Precision
Accuracy
Reproducibility
Reliability
33. A nurse is taking a health history on a sick infant in the local emergency room. She asked how long the child has been throwing up and the mother answers twenty-four hours while the father contradicts her and says the child started throwing up three hours ago. What common pitfall of causal research is this an example of: (Points : 2)
Random Error
Bias
Effect Modification
Interaction
34. If a researcher is operating at a 95% CI, his margin of error is: (Points : 2)
5%
10%
.5%
1%
35. What is the difference between ANOVA and ANCOVA? (Points : 2)
The type of variance
The type of variable
The number of variables
Nothing is different
36. What is the defining difference between a prospective and a retrospective cohort study? (Points : 2)
Time
Dose
None of the above
All of the above
37. A Type I error is also known as a: (Points : 2)
False Positive Error
False Negative Error
Alpha Error
A and C are correct

38. The natural history or stages of a disease are three in number; which of the following is the correct stages in the correct order or occurrence? (Points : 2)
Latent, pre-disease, symptomatic
Latent, symptomatic, pre-disease
Symptomatic, pre-disease, latent
Pre-disease, latent, symptomatic
39. When observing a Gaussian Distribution (or Bell Curve), of one tail is longer and has more observations than the other tail, it is called: (Points : 2)
Kurtosis
Skewness
Variance
Mode
40. A vector of disease may be all of the following except: (Points : 2)
Arthropods
Insects
Animals
Man
41. The delivery of the conceptual product (i.e. baby) that shows any sign of life after being expelled from the mother is known as: (Points : 2)
Postnatal Death
Live Birth
Neonatal Death
Miscarriage
42. An immune system that is deemed normal at birth and suffers no damage from a disease such as HIV is termed a/an: (Points : 2)
Innate immunity
Herd immunity
Intact immunity
Objective immunity

43. When vaccines are used to confer an immunity such as with children it is known as: (Points : 2)
Passive immunity
Active immunity
Individual immunity
Globular immunity
44. When looking at a Gaussian distribution and it appears flattened what is this a characteristic sign of? (Points : 2)
Kurtosis
Skewness
Variability
Mode Dispersion
45. The value of alpha serves as protection against which of the following: (Points : 2)
False negative results
Selection bias
Type I Error
Type II Error
46. Ten children were weighed prior to the beginning of a nutritional study. The weights are: 81, 79, 92, 112, 76, 126, 80, 75, 68, 78. What is the median? (Points : 2)
79
112
80
92
47. Which of the following is not a common type of intervention? (Points : 2)
Modification of environment
Putting a barrier to the infection within the hosts
Treatment of diagnosed individuals
Identification of surveillance methods
48. The __________ is used to determine the probability of two things being true. (Points : 2)
Independence Rule
Product Rule
Subtraction Rule
49. The application of Bayes Theorem to patient care generally results in: (Points : 2)
Greater Sensitivity
Greater Specificity
Higher costs
Improved selection of diagnostic studies
50. An estimate of the amount of risk which is attributed to the risk factor is: (Points : 2)
Odds Ratio
Absolute Ratio
Attributable Risk
Attributable Ratio
51. How many steps are there in the process of testing a null hypothesis for statistical significance? (Points : 2)
4
5
6
7
52. Evaluation of which of the following potentially preventable causes of disease is most likely to raise ethical concerns: (Points : 2)
Dietary intake
Genetic susceptibility
Immunization status
Smoking history
Social support network
53. Please select the appropriate answer for the “mean” based on the following numbers: 1,4,9,20,23,27,31,48,56,58. (Points : 2)
25.7
27.0
2.70
27.7

54. The _________ is used to determine the probability of one thing being true under all possible conditions. (Points : 2) 