dietary intake genetic susceptibility immunization status smoking history social support network 53 H e a l t h M e d i c a l

Which type of constant multiplier is most appropriate for calculating rates? (Points : 2)

100, 10,000, or 100,000

1,3,5,7,10

Multiples of 5

Multiples of 100

A and D are both correct

2. The first three interns you meet feel a lot better since they started taking a commonly prescribed antidepressant. You reluctantly draw the conclusion that internship is associated with depression; this is an example of: (Points : 2)

Deductive reasoning

Hypothesis testing

Inductive reasoning

Interpolation

3. The sum of the squared deviations from the mean, divided by the number of observations minus one is known as the: (Points : 2)

Range

Median

Variance

Standard Deviations

4. A most imposing formula used in medicine dealing with probability of a person having or not having a disease based on test results is: (Points : 2)

Cramer V-value Theorem

Plasmodium Theory

Calmette-Guerin Theory

Bayes Theorem

5. Reasoning which is learned from mathematics including geometry is known as: (Points : 2)

Productive

Inductive

Deductive

None of the above are correct

6. A Type II Error or false negative error is also known as a/an: (Points : 2)

Alpha Error

Beta Error

Omega Error

Delta Error

7. [A / (A + B)] / [C/( C + D)] is the formulas for: (Points : 2)

Absolute Risk

Relative Risk

Risk Ratio

Risk Difference

8. Ten children were weighed prior to the beginning of a nutritional study. The weights are: 81, 79, 92, 112, 76, 126, 80, 75, 68, 78. What is the mean weight? (Points : 2)

76.8

79

86.7

91

9. The main difference between clinical and classical epidemiology are: (Points : 2)

The time of the investigation

The place of the investigation

The population being studied

A and c are correct

B and c are correct

10. [A/(A + B)] – [C/ (C + D)] is the formula for: (Points : 2)

Risk Ratio

Risk Factor

Attributable Risk

Risk Difference

11. How many steps are included in the creating of a decision tree? (Points : 2)

4

5

6

7

12. The three stages of disease in the appropriate order from least to most detectable are: (Points : 2)

Latent, symptomatic, pre-disease

Symptomatic, latent, pre-disease

Pre-disease, symptomatic, latent

Pre-disease, latent, symptomatic

13. Which of the following is not a part of the procedure for investigating a suspected epidemic? (Points : 2)

Name the epidemic

Establish a diagnosis

Establish the case definition

Define time, place and person

Develop a hypothesis

14. Calculate Attributable Risk using the following data: A=1346, B= 100,000-1346, C=200, D=100,000-200; then select the appropriate answer below: (Points : 2)

1146/10,000

1146/100,000

146/10,000

146/1000

15. Developing a list of possible candidates for the causes of the disease and obtaining initial evidence that supports one or more of the candidates is known as: (Points : 2)

Research Design

Hypothesis Testing

Hypothesis Generating

Descriptive Research

16. An example of a nominal variable is: (Points : 2)

1,2,3

Yes/No

Male/Female

Both B and C are correct

All are correct

17. The definition of the word epidemiology includes: (Points : 2)

The study of determining factors of disease in a population

A way in which disease, injury and clinical practice are studied

Neither of the above is correct

Both a and b are correct

18. A false positive error is also known as __________ and a false negative error is known as _____________. (Points : 2)

Alpha/beta

Type I/Type II

Neither is correct

Both are correct

19. A histogram minus the bars which are replaced by dots which are connected is known as a/an: (Points : 2)

Bar Graph

Frequency Distribution

Stem and Leaf Diagram

Frequency Polygon

20. Please select the appropriate answer for the “mean” based on the following numbers: 2,8,10,21,46,58,31,2,9,141. (Points : 2)

3.28

328.0

.328

32.8

21. Another name for “bias” is: (Points : 2)

Synergism

Differential Error

Syndrome

Error

22. An investigator studying the health effects of omega-3 fatty acids in subjects with arthritis tends to assign enthusiastic participants to the intervention and skeptics to the placebo. The best way to avoid this form of bias is: (Points : 2)

“Intention to treat” analysis

Random Sampling

Randomization

Self-selection

Statistical Regression

23. Calculate the Attributable Risk using the following data: A= 191, B=99,809, C=8.70, D= 99,991.30; then select the appropriate answer below: (Points : 2)

182.3/100,000

183.2/100,000

99,991/100,000

191/100,000

24. Of the following numbers please evaluate to arrive at the correct mode: 28, 39, 39,41, 41, 41, 59, 65, 21, 28, 39, 39 (Points : 2)

41

59

39

28

25. The Decision Node: (Points : 2)

Is a point where clinicians await outcomes

Is a point where clinicians have to make a decision

Is only related to undesirable outcomes

Is only related to desirable outcome interpretation

26. Calculate the Odds Ratio (OR) using the following data: A= 191, B= 99,809, C=8.7, D= 99,991.30; then select the correct answer from below: (Points : 2)

2.000

1.952

2.195

21.95

27. What is an example of tertiary prevention? (Points : 2)

Hospice care

Occupational therapy after a stroke (cerebrovascular accident)

Post exposure prophylaxis for rabies

Treatment for essential hypertension

28. When developing a decision tree, which comes first: (Points : 2)

Chance Node

Neither A or B are correct

Decision node

Doesn’t Matter

29. If the cost of preventing a hip fracture is greater than the cost of surgical repair, which of the following is true: (Points : 2)

A preventative strategy still may be indicated

If a hip fracture occurs, it should be managed non-surgically

No attempt should be made to prevent hip fracture until a more cost-effective strategy is devised

The least costly preventative strategy should be chosen

30. A clearly identified group of people who are going to be studied is known as a/an: (Points : 2)

Cohort

Population

Neyman Group

None of the above

31. One way in which a researcher can judge how useful a screening or testing procedure is involves: (Points : 2)

Evaluation of number of correct test results seen

This cannot be done

This statement is false except in cohort studies of 200 or more individuals

Testing conducted in opposite areas of a geographic location

32. The ability of a measurement to be correct on the average is known as: (Points : 2)

Precision

Accuracy

Reproducibility

Reliability

33. A nurse is taking a health history on a sick infant in the local emergency room. She asked how long the child has been throwing up and the mother answers twenty-four hours while the father contradicts her and says the child started throwing up three hours ago. What common pitfall of causal research is this an example of: (Points : 2)

Random Error

Bias

Effect Modification

Interaction

34. If a researcher is operating at a 95% CI, his margin of error is: (Points : 2)

5%

10%

.5%

1%

35. What is the difference between ANOVA and ANCOVA? (Points : 2)

The type of variance

The type of variable

The number of variables

Nothing is different

36. What is the defining difference between a prospective and a retrospective cohort study? (Points : 2)

Time

Dose

None of the above

All of the above

37. A Type I error is also known as a: (Points : 2)

False Positive Error

False Negative Error

Alpha Error

A and C are correct

38. The natural history or stages of a disease are three in number; which of the following is the correct stages in the correct order or occurrence? (Points : 2)

Latent, pre-disease, symptomatic

Latent, symptomatic, pre-disease

Symptomatic, pre-disease, latent

Pre-disease, latent, symptomatic

39. When observing a Gaussian Distribution (or Bell Curve), of one tail is longer and has more observations than the other tail, it is called: (Points : 2)

Kurtosis

Skewness

Variance

Mode

40. A vector of disease may be all of the following except: (Points : 2)

Arthropods

Insects

Animals

Man

41. The delivery of the conceptual product (i.e. baby) that shows any sign of life after being expelled from the mother is known as: (Points : 2)

Postnatal Death

Live Birth

Neonatal Death

Miscarriage

42. An immune system that is deemed normal at birth and suffers no damage from a disease such as HIV is termed a/an: (Points : 2)

Innate immunity

Herd immunity

Intact immunity

Objective immunity

43. When vaccines are used to confer an immunity such as with children it is known as: (Points : 2)

Passive immunity

Active immunity

Individual immunity

Globular immunity

44. When looking at a Gaussian distribution and it appears flattened what is this a characteristic sign of? (Points : 2)

Kurtosis

Skewness

Variability

Mode Dispersion

45. The value of alpha serves as protection against which of the following: (Points : 2)

False negative results

Inadequate sample size

Selection bias

Type I Error

Type II Error

46. Ten children were weighed prior to the beginning of a nutritional study. The weights are: 81, 79, 92, 112, 76, 126, 80, 75, 68, 78. What is the median? (Points : 2)

79

112

80

92

47. Which of the following is not a common type of intervention? (Points : 2)

Modification of environment

Putting a barrier to the infection within the hosts

Treatment of diagnosed individuals

Eradication and control of vectors

Identification of surveillance methods

48. The __________ is used to determine the probability of two things being true. (Points : 2)

Addition Rule

Independence Rule

Product Rule

Subtraction Rule

49. The application of Bayes Theorem to patient care generally results in: (Points : 2)

Greater Sensitivity

Greater Specificity

Higher costs

Improved selection of diagnostic studies

50. An estimate of the amount of risk which is attributed to the risk factor is: (Points : 2)

Odds Ratio

Absolute Ratio

Attributable Risk

Attributable Ratio

51. How many steps are there in the process of testing a null hypothesis for statistical significance? (Points : 2)

4

5

6

7

52. Evaluation of which of the following potentially preventable causes of disease is most likely to raise ethical concerns: (Points : 2)

Dietary intake

Genetic susceptibility

Immunization status

Smoking history

Social support network

53. Please select the appropriate answer for the “mean” based on the following numbers: 1,4,9,20,23,27,31,48,56,58. (Points : 2)

25.7

27.0

2.70

27.7

54. The _________ is used to determine the probability of one thing being true under all possible conditions. (Points : 2)

Addition Rule

Independence Rule

Product Rule

Subtraction Rule

55. The case that introduced the organism into the population is known as: (Points : 2)

Epidemic time curve

Route of spread

Primary exposure case

Index case

None of the above

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