schools today already incorporate learning W r i t i n g

schools today already incorporate learning W r i t i n g

A complete answer will be 400 words (1 double spaced Word page) long!!

Your essays must be written entirely in your own words – no quotes, no copying of text from articles, modules, or the web – and must use only information learned from material posted as part of this class (modules – reading, links, articles). Please do not collaborate or discuss your answers to the questions with anyone – the essays you write need to be your own work. If you have questions about the questions, please message me and I’m happy to discuss it with you.

Question #1:

Pick one example of folklore that you are familiar with. Write the example or briefly summarize it (2 – 5 sentences) if it is longer. What form of folklore is this an example? What elements of folklore are apparent in this example? Do a brief analysis of the messages, functions, and cultural values being expressed in this example and via the context in which it is told (provide some information on that context).


Question #2:

Describe language use among women and/or men you know from a specific context or incident. Discuss elements of their speech that mirrors or differs from the aspects of language typically associated with female or male speech, as discussed in the module and text. Consider this interaction in relation to the hypotheses for the use of prestige forms. Consider this interaction in relation to the hypotheses for differences in conversational styles.

(lmk if you need help with an example)

Question #3

Describe a situation in which you have noticed (or seen an absence of) differences in how people from different racial or ethnic backgrounds speak and interact. Analyze the situation in light of patterns of speech (phonology, vocabulary, grammar etc) and consider how these patterns reflect in-group/out-group identity and relative power among the individuals/social groups.

(lmk if you need help w an example)

Question #4:

Discuss the factors affecting an endangered language and its possible eventual death. Select one example as discussed in the text or links from the module, relating the particular situation to the broader concepts of language shift and language death.

Summarize your thoughts about the John Hawks’ article from the discussion during this week of class. If you were in charge of a culturally and linguistically diverse school district, what would you do?

(for the second part, these are my own words) you can make it sound better but use these ideas

If I were to be in charge of education for a school district with speakers from different language heritages, I would learn to adapt to its diversity and have all the students and faculty embrace it. Although it may come with hardships and would be super difficult to teach, it is essential to learn more about the various languages. If the school itself were to be filled with so many different languages, I would then feel like it would create a greater education to be aware of all different backgrounds and cultures. As schools today already incorporate learning a second language in the school curriculum, I think that having the students become at least bilingual will allow them to be successful in their futures and career paths. In every community, there is a demand in languages, and it would be helpful for the next generations to be socially aware and learn them. It would be beneficial to their lives and would make speaking easier for those that may be around them. I personally think that it could grant many new opportunities and allow them to become more confident in speaking different languages other than just their native one.

( do the Chile Expedition )

An expedition I decided to research for this discussion was the Chile. In fact, the Enduring Voices team had traveled to Chile to be able to fully assess the current status of an endangered South American language, being the Huilliche. All of the citizens that lived in both communities were so sad and had an unfortunate belief that their languages will soon disappear, but thankfully they still have the desire to restore their language and keep it going.

I understood that the Huilliche in general had become very endangered, especially in some communities. Considering the article, the overall number count of speakers had gradually become less and less over the years in comparison to how it use to be which was a lot more. In the community, however, there is actually more than one Huilliche language that is spoken.

The Enduring Voices team had visited both communities, being: Choroy Traiguen (in Osorno Province) and Wequetrumao (on Chiloe Island). In each of those communities, the team found that there were many traditional practices that were really valued. Some of the few traditional practices varied from: gathering and preparing medicinal plants, fishing, weaving of wool textiles, basketry, berry processing, small-scale farming (pigs, chickens, sheep, cows), gardening (vegetables and flowers). Both of those communities actually promote eco-tourism.

In regards to the language, the two communities differ when it comes to their dialects. In Choroy Traiguen they name their tongue as “Tsesungun.” On the other hand, the Wequetrumao they call their tongue “Huillichesungun.” Though the two languages, they essentially may share as many as eighty percent of the many basic words. The Enduring Voices team understood that they differ in their sounds and grammar, as well as in their ethno-linguistic identity. Thankfully, the Enduring Voices made an amazing commitment towards the whole Huilliche community, where they would be able to provide beneficial resources, training, and expertise to aid their linguistic survival and to be able to save their language all together.

( those are my words and writing, you can make it sound better and apply it to the question in a good way if need be)

Question #5:

In Jane Hill’s article, “Mock Spanish”, she argues that this language reflects underlying stereotypes, continuing racist attitudes towards others. What is Mock Spanish? Define direct and indirect indexicality, and give an example of each. How do both of these operate in Mock Spanish to perpetuate racists attitudes and negative stereotypes? (I realize you may disagree with some or all of Hill’s argument. For this first part, just explain her argument accurately.)

How do we define mock language? How do we define language borrowing? There are many opinions on what is considered cultural appreciation vs. cultural appropriation vs. downright racist mocking. What do you think differentiates these situations? You can refer to Mock Spanish or another example in explaining your thoughts on this.


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